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Eric Schmidt at the Celebration of Teaching and Learning

Eric Schmidt at the Celebration of Teaching and Learning

MALE SPEAKER: Now I have the
really great pleasure to begin the introduction of this
terrific piece that will end today. There are two important
speakers who will be with us now. I will introduce the first and
since nobody sets up an interview better than Charlie
Rose, wisdom tells me that I will not introduce the second,
which is Eric Schmidt. Charlie Rose. Born in North Carolina, did his
undergraduate and his law degree at Duke. He left a banking career to join
public television as part of the Bill Moyers
Journal team. He then did a little bit
of work with commercial television and found himself
back in the arms of public television. And in 1991, began locally a
local program called the Charlie Rose show. Well as you all know, within
two years that show went nationally. It is recognized as the standard
of late night TV and clearly is the most– if not only– but most intelligent
conversation on television. [APPLAUSE] Very, very few people of
consequence have not set across at that table from
Charlie Rose, whether they are in the arts, in sports, in
entertainment, politics, you name it, if they are of
consequence, one day they need to be sitting at that table
opposite Charlie Rose. Tonight we will get to sit in
on a classic Charlie Rose conversation. Ladies and gentlemen, please
join me in giving a warm welcome to Emmy Award
winner Charlie rose. CHARLIE ROSE: He is a friend
of mine, he is a remarkable executive talent. We will say a little
bit of this. 1995, ninety a couple of
graduate students at Stanford university thought up this
idea for a search. About 2001, they decided,
we need a partner. We need an executive. We need somebody that can
help us organize. Eric is the first to tell you
they didn’t really need me, but he came in and it has
been an explosive growth since then. They’re into everything, which
we will talk about, but Eric also has, along with Sergei
and along with Larry, put together one of the
most exciting companies in the world. And they continue to be that,
they continue to grow. I mean, when the name of your
company becomes a verb, you know that you’re doing
something right. He is a pilot. Last night, he flew his
own jet into New York. He is a man of enormous
curiosity about everything and he is one of the people who
is shaping our future. Our economic future, because he
is one of the people on the advisory council to President
Obama, but also he is helping shape technology which has
fueled the American economy over the last 10 years. He is a remarkable man. Last Friday, we sat
and had lunch. I have one suggestion for you. If you are in Silicon Valley
and if you’re near Mountain View, I won’t say call
Eric, but you ought to see this place. It’s a campus. And they have the
most interesting offices you’ve ever seen. There are people walk around
with computers all the time. They’re having conferences
and they’re thinking about the future. And he is one of those people
who is shaping the future. Please welcome Eric Schmidt. [APPLAUSE] That was off the cuff. ERIC SCHMIDT: That was
perfect, thank you very much, too nice. CHARLIE ROSE: First of all, I
want to have Eric say a bit about this briefly before we
start the television show. I really am thrilled to be here
because next week on our show, we are doing on Monday the
Secretary of Energy who is a Nobel Laureate,
from Washington. On Tuesday, the Secretary of the
Treasury Tim Geithner on the economy. On Wednesday, the Secretary of
Education, on Thursday, the Chairman of Joint Chiefs,
on Friday, Nancy Pelosi. That’s our lineup
for next week. [APPLAUSE] I’ve got that Neil working
really hard to book this show. But I mentioned that because
of education and because of the commitment you have. And
because of what this is about, a celebration of teaching
and learning. I’m simply going to say it has
defined my life, not the teaching part, although we hope
that it has something to that teaching with
fun in terms of what we do every night. But the idea of learning. I have to adjust my tie,
they’re telling me. What’s wrong with my tie? [LAUGHTER] Is there anything wrong
with my tie? ERIC SCHMIDT: Let’s
have a vote. CHARLIE ROSE: Alright. It’s what? Does that look better? Is that better? Is that all right? [APPLAUSE] There you go. Just for a moment, before we
go into this, your own involvement, commitment,
Google in education. ERIC SCHMIDT: I’m the product of
the American public schools system and when you look back
at the success one has in life, you try to remember
what got you there. And a lot of things, but I’ll
tell you the teachers and the commitment that I had, that I
learned about education and learning really did make
the difference. So partly, I’m here to say thank
you and not for myself, but rather for the people that
you are educating now who 30 years from now will say that you
all made that difference. [APPLAUSE] And as a person who believes
in education, it’s obvious that the people who are in
education and both at the K through 12 area as well as
universities, have not gotten both the credit, the attention,
the funding and really the sort of understanding
of the role that they play. So we have an opportunity now,
in crisis, to understand what’s really important
in life. And I would argue that an
educated population is the only thing that’s important. [APPLAUSE] CHARLIE ROSE: OK, so if they
will tell me that the technical stuff is working,
we’ll try to make the human stuff work here too. So are we set to go? Welcome to the broadcast. We’re
in new York with the CEO of Google Eric Schmidt. [APPLAUSE] You’re piercing behind
the veil to see what we do, all right? Back to me. Eric Schmidt for
the hour, next. You have to be really smart to
do this, I’m telling you. [LAUGHTER] OK. Right. Eric Schmidt, the CEO of Google
joins us now for a conversation about Google, about
technology, about the future and about education. I am pleased to have him here on
this stage as we celebrate learning and teaching. Welcome. ERIC SCHMIDT: Thank
you, Charlie. Thanks for having me on again. CHARLIE ROSE: All right, we were
just with each other last Friday on the Google campus. Had many a conversation about
some of the things we’ll talk about, but not all. Let’s just go back and do a
quick history of Google. 1995, Sergei and Larry start it,
and they create the search engine working at Stanford. How did they get you
involved in 2001? ERIC SCHMIDT: Well, Larry
and Sergei invented the algorithms, the lessons if you
will, the way our search works today, when they were very young
and in graduate school. And they founded Google and
eventually needed some additional management help and
there was a search and ultimately I got connected to
them through one of our board members, John Doerr. From my perspective, most of
what you see at Google today was invented at Stanford by
graduate students and a lot of culture, the way we
operate is really derived from that culture. CHARLIE ROSE: Your background,
though, was as a technologist. ERIC SCHMIDT: That’s correct. CHARLIE ROSE: You’d been head
of technology for Sun Microsystems, you’ve
been a CEO. ERIC SCHMIDT: Yes, and I
see myself mostly as a technologist who happens
to run a business. CHARLIE ROSE: What was the
original mission of Google? ERIC SCHMIDT: All the world’s
information, universally accessible and useful. CHARLIE ROSE: And how are
we doing on that? ERIC SCHMIDT: Well, we’ve
just started. And I would tell you that when
you’re 23 years old and you state that’s your mission,
you’ve got a lot of years ahead of you. And Larry and Sergei still have
a long way to go in that. CHARLIE ROSE: This is what I’ve
always wanted to know. I’m told this is true. That in the beginning, what
you’re going to do was sell to people the search technology. Sell this to you, then
you can do search. ERIC SCHMIDT: The first model
was just, this is an amazing new invention, this ability
to search information. And at the time, the web
was not so complicated. It wasn’t as obvious that search
would be needed because it wasn’t that big. You could sort of look
and find things and you knew people. So Larry and Sergei went around
to all of the then powerful internet companies
and every one of them turned them down. CHARLIE ROSE: Saying what? ERIC SCHMIDT: We have
a better solution. We don’t know how to
work with you. You’re too young, that
sort of thing. CHARLIE ROSE: Entrepreneurs
have gone through this. There’s not an entrepreneur
alive who hasn’t gone to somebody and say, good
luck, not for me. ERIC SCHMIDT: There’s a rule– CHARLIE ROSE: –including
bankers. ERIC SCHMIDT: That’s right. There’s a rule in Silicon
Valley that the great entrepreneurs break out early. And I think you see that and I
think part of the reason that occurs is because of the
educational system in America with graduate students and young
faculty is very, very productive. So you get people right out of
college, you get them into a graduate program and they invent
something and all the worlds in front of them
and they go for it. It’s one of the greatest
aspects of America. CHARLIE ROSE: Well who decided,
what smart person decided that rather than selling
the technology, we’ll just sell advertising? ERIC SCHMIDT: Well the initial
attempts didn’t work because they heard no, no, no. Meanwhile, the money is kind
of running out and they’re getting kind of nervous. So they came up with a simple
advertising model, which one of the engineers invented
that worked pretty well. And the small team at
the time managed to get a couple of deals. When I showed up, that product
was fixed in price and Google had invented a dynamic system
that ultimately became our product called AdWords. And I remember walking to the
very young program manager whose name was [? Salwar ?] who looked to me to be
about 21 years old. I had just joined and I said,
promise me, our revenues are not going to go down by a
factor of 10 when you brilliant new product
comes out. He said, it’s going to go
up by a factor of 10. I said no, you know. And indeed he was right. CHARLIE ROSE: And advertising
is now, what 90% of the revenue? ERIC SCHMIDT: 98%. CHARLIE ROSE: 98%. ERIC SCHMIDT: But
who is counting. CHARLIE ROSE: So advertising
has been very, very, ver good to Google. ERIC SCHMIDT: We are an
advertising company. And you can think of Google
as two parts of a company. You can think of it as
a user phenomenon. Our primary focus, by the way,
is on end users and solving their needs. And you can also think of it as
a business, in which case it’s an advertising business. CHARLIE ROSE: Since then,
how many searches last year in 2008? Do you know? ERIC SCHMIDT: I don’t know. But it’s in the many,
many billions. CHARLIE ROSE: Many, many
billion dollars. And it’s growing exponentially
each year, or has it plateaued? ERIC SCHMIDT: Well, searches
of users is growing quite nicely because the internet
is growing. And one of the great stories,
even as bad of an economic situation that we have now is
that the internet continues to solve people’s needs. People really do use
it every day, no matter what their state. There was a survey recently that
said that your broadband connection was the last thing
you’d get rid of in all your financial problems. CHARLIE ROSE: And today Google
does many things. I mean, searches is its primary
thing, but you created email, Google News. ERIC SCHMIDT: We started off
with search and the early founding team, Larry and Sergei
and the initial team, invented the advertising model
which has done so well for us. On April 1st, 2004, we
introduced our first application which was
called Gmail. At the time, people thought it
was an April fool’s joke. We sort of played with
that, but it was part of our character. And today, we say our strategy
is search, ads and app.s CHARLIE ROSE: Search,
ads and apps. ERIC SCHMIDT: And applications
that make your life better. And we have the ability now
because we have so many people using Google to really change
the way they use computers in a way that’s material. The term of art is now called
cloud computing and the idea is to let the computer take
care of all the details. All you do is just use it, it’s
always there, Google or someone else keeps
the information. We don’t lose it, we don’t
break it, it doesn’t get viruses, that sort of thing. CHARLIE ROSE: Applications. You have this thing at Google
where you can take a day off of each week or 20%
of your time– out of 100% five
days, one day– and you can work on anything
you want to. How much of that has led to
interesting, productive, profitable applications? ERIC SCHMIDT: We think the 20%
time is really the only way we’ve been able to maintain
our innovation as we’ve gotten larger. What normally happens with
technology companies is the initial founding team gets
older, you’re being in traditional management and
although they becomes a better managed company, much of the
creativity and the flair and the joie de vivre gets
lost in the process. By establishing the principle
that engineers could spend 20% of their time working on
whatever they found interesting, we created a
culture where there’s this constant flow of innovation. Literally, every day there’s
another fun surprise. Before we get too excited
about the 20% time, these are engineers. They don’t vary that far from
their area of interest. But it gives them an opportunity– CHARLIE ROSE: –they’re not
finding a cure for cancer. They’re looking at– ERIC SCHMIDT: –by the way,
if the did, we’d be very excited about it. But what they’re really doing is
they’re saying in my space, I see all of these new
technologies and there’s a new problem that I see that I want
to apply this stuff to and that’s how the innovation
works. CHARLIE ROSE: You also bought
YouTube, you have Google News. We’re at a time now and we’re
going to talk a lot about the economy in this conversation
because of the roles you have, acquisitions come up. People are excited these
days, the last several months, about Twitter. Does Google want
to buy Twitter? ERIC SCHMIDT: I shouldn’t talk
about specific acquisitions. We’re unlikely to buy anything
in the short term, partly because, I think, prices
are still high. And it’s unfortunate,
I think we’re in the middle of a cycle. Google is generating a lot of
cash and so we keep that cash in extremely secure banks. [LAUGHTER] And we’ll wait that out. From our perspective, I think
the YouTube acquisition and the DoubleClick acquisition,
which are the two large ones we did last year and the year
before, have been phenomenally successful. CHARLIE ROSE: YouTube is defined
by an interesting idea which many people think has sort
of been a breakthrough idea, which is it is
user generated. Most of the video
comes from user. Now there are other people now
forming all kinds of video operations in which the
information comes from programs like mine and NBC and
CBS, PBS and the rest of them. But YouTube has been fueled by
user generated, people did it with their cameras. How much of a phenomenon
is that going to be in the future? ERIC SCHMIDT: We think it will
be one of the most defining aspects of the internet. Because if you think about
it, everybody has phones. And every phone has a still
camera and every one of those phones is going to have a movie
camera pretty soon. And indeed, if you think about
it, a lot of the news that you see, you’ll see some phone
camera video of low quality. Well, five years form now,
those will be very high-quality videos as the
technology gets better. And the joke is that the vast
majority of photographs now taken are kept in people’s
phones because they can’t get them out of them. CHARLIE ROSE: The can take the
picture, but they don’t know what to do with it. ERIC SCHMIDT: So we’re working
to solve that problem. The important thing here is
that the phenomenon of user-generated generated content
of which you two as an example is I think the defining
expression of humanity over the next
10 to 20 years. We had no idea that all these
things were going on because there was no way to see them. And now, if you have someone
who’s being taken advantage of or abused or put in an
inappropriate position or what have you, they can
take a picture. They can record what the
police are doing in a dictatorship. CHARLIE ROSE: And it has
political ramifications, too. ERIC SCHMIDT: There’s a
lot of implications. CHARLIE ROSE: Speak to that. ERIC SCHMIDT: Well, the most
interesting thing to me is that transparency is how you
keep societies honest. And we’ve now, because of the
internet and because of the digital revolution, given people
the ability to see everything. So you can now take photographs,
take videos of everything you see in your world
and people discover it. And there are whole communities
of people who are interested in these kinds of
aspects and they serve as a form of check and balance on
the powerful, the rich, the people who might
exploit others. It doesn’t necessarily mean for
a different outcome, but it means that everybody
can’t hide. They have to actually
tell the truth. And to me, that’s a great
step forward. CHARLIE ROSE: And how would
it affect politics? ERIC SCHMIDT: Well, there
are many ways. Today, if you talk to
politicians, a simple story is that in 2006, the House went
democratic, the Senate went Democratic because of a race in
Virginia which involve an unfortunate video on Youtube
of a Republican candidate losing to a Democratic
candidate. CHARLIE ROSE: George Allen was
running for the Senate as a Republican. Running for reelection and he
was campaigning and somebody in which he had a moment in
which he reacted to somebody in the audience, and they all
had it on cell phone. ERIC SCHMIDT: And politicians
have learned from that lesson. So there’s an example where the
government switched power, literally on the margin because
of somebody’s video and the ability to
use YouTube. CHARLIE ROSE: And, where nations
have been trying to hide things in terms of
accountability and said it may be spreading in a
certain region. ERIC SCHMIDT: And on the
Democratic side, there was another example. There was a video of one of
the congressional people involved in the Abscam scandal,
which many people have forgotten. And yet the video brought back
those memories and affected the outcome of the
Democratic race. It’s an equal opportunity
technology. The important point here is
that politicians are well aware of YouTube and
its phenomenon. And are more careful. And being more careful is
probably good, because indeed, if they are going off and
saying things to small audiences and then going to
another audience and saying something very different, I want
to know that as a viewer. There are many things that you
can imagine in the future. The one I like the most is the
politicians BS detector. Where basically, Google is
sitting there and the politician says something and
you can type it in or even maybe it listens and says well,
that’s true or false. Then you can decide if you
want to leave or cheer. CHARLIE ROSE: Well, it also has
this ramification too, is people on the internet now who
may have information, if they know something is going on
in an investigation by a journalistic organization, it
can hold them accountable too because somebody may have
information that some facts used in the journalist’s report
were not true because they have better information
or information that contradicts. ERIC SCHMIDT: What happens
as a result is it’s very difficult now to use completely
false statements to inflame the public. You can take the facts and you
can twist them in the way that you see fit, but your facts
have to be right. And that’s probably a big
improvement in governance. CHARLIE ROSE: It also is how
then-senator Obama had a difficult moment during the
Pennsylvania primary when he went up to San Francisco to
raise some money, somebody was in there with a phone and
recorded something. So mobile devices will play
what role in the future evolution of technology? ERIC SCHMIDT: They’re probably
the most important of all. Today, everyone here in the
audience has a mobile phone. It’s the last thing you
would leave anywhere. That phone has a GPS, it
knows where it is. The powerful mobile phones
have powerful browsers. They have cameras as we
discussed before. You can do a lot with them. Fast forward a few years from
now with the content and the capability of that with a new
generation of applications. We expect eventually that the
majority of uses of the internet will be on
mobile phones. Mobile phone usage is growing
faster than personal computers, there are many more
of them on the order of four billion in the world. In our lifetime, the majority
of people, at least five billion, maybe five
and a half billion will have mobile phones. CHARLIE ROSE: The exponential
growth in countries like China and India and emerging markets
as they’re called, even though they pretty much emerged rather
well is extraordinary. ERIC SCHMIDT: In our lifetimes,
we’re going from almost no one being able to
communicate to almost everyone being able to communicate. We’re also going from almost
no one having any kind of information and access to
libraries to virtually everyone having access
to every piece of information in the world. That is an enormous
accomplishment for humanity. CHARLIE ROSE: This brings me
to some of the issues that might be relevant here. Number one, in terms of
copyright and all of that, you guys would like to have every
author of every book ever published made available
through Google. Fair enough? ERIC SCHMIDT: That’s right, and
furthermore, we want them compensated. And we’ve entered into an
agreement that we hope will be approved by a court of book
publishers and authors where essentially rights holders will
register and they will get essentially a commission and
a payment for the use of their work if it’s printed
on an electronic basis. We hope that in this model,
people will be comfortable that if people find the book,
they’ll buy it online either in text form or they’ll go to
Amazon or something like and purchase the book in which
case the author will also be happy. CHARLIE ROSE: They’ll put it
on their Kindle or their reader or something. ERIC SCHMIDT: It’s worth noting,
by the way, that if you imagine the power of these
mobile devices over a five or ten year period, they should
be possible to do almost everything that we do today
with other means. It should be possible to read
books very well on those devices, make it as fast as
reading a magazine, it should be possible to watch television
and watch your show routinely on these devices
at very high quality. The technology is just getting
there and when that occurs, it’s a different experience
because it’s a personal experience. When I turn on the television,
it shows the same shows that I saw yesterday and I watched them
and it doesn’t know that I watched them yesterday. What a foolish television,
why is it not smarter? CHARLIE ROSE: What are you
going to do about that? ERIC SCHMIDT: Well, in our
case, we’re building the platform that will allow the
content people to do more targeted content. So you can imagine the mobile
device will say, well Eric, you watched this episode of
this television show. We’ll offer you this
other one. Or, didn’t you forget that you
already watched that episode of Charlie Rose, you should
watch this other one because it’s related to the
one you liked. This personal viewing experience
is a fundamental thing that the internet can
do and that companies like Google can do. CHARLIE ROSE: But it’s
also the key to the advertising too. In other words, that’s why
you guys got so rich. ERIC SCHMIDT: Of course. CHARLIE ROSE: Is that when
people, whatever they were searching for, gave a link to
what you’re interested in and you could therefore pinpoint
products that might appeal to you. ERIC SCHMIDT: That’s right. CHARLIE ROSE: How much of it
is text rather than video? ERIC SCHMIDT: Well today, the
vast majority is text. CHARLIE ROSE: 90%? ERIC SCHMIDT: 95%. Those text ads that you see near
search results are very, very lucrative. It’s a great business to be and
you’d probably say that’s an understatement. CHARLIE ROSE: Yes, I do. ERIC SCHMIDT: But the same model
works for other things. So we’re busy building, for
example, in the display ads, which are the picture and so
forth, we’re building much more sophisticated and powerful ads that are immersive. You know, it’s all
about narrative. When I look at your show and I
look at what you do, I see a narrative that is involved. CHARLIE ROSE: I’m conscious
of that every moment. ERIC SCHMIDT: Really? CHARLIE ROSE: The story. ERIC SCHMIDT: It’s always about
a story and you know, that’s been true for
5,000 years. It’s not a new concept. CHARLIE ROSE: It’s a little
bit like People Magazine. And Henry Luce once was being
criticized because there was the people section of Time
Magazine was the most popular section, that’s what they
went to, read more. So than they created People
Magazine, which someone at the time said this is frivolous
information about people and why are people so curious
about other people? And Henry Luce famously said,
have you read the bible? It’s all about stories
about people. But go ahead, I interrupted. ERIC SCHMIDT: I think the
important point here is that we can get a personal
experience, it really does have a narrative and has an
ad associated with it. And that ad itself can
have a narrative. It can have a contest, it can
have user involvement. We believe that a highly
personal ad has value to the user. It makes no sense. If you show me an advertisement
at home in a home that doesn’t have a need
for baby products, diapers and so forth, why are you
wasting your money? You should show me an ad that is
relevant to my demographic. We can do that now with these
devices and we can do it to the person. CHARLIE ROSE: Sir Martin Sorrell
is the head of the WPP who sort of created through
acquisitions, I think made it the second largest advertising
in the world. He has a term for you guys. I think it’s a combination
of a friend or enemy. Frenemy. Which he says, are these
guys our friends or are they our enemy? ERIC SCHMIDT: When I talked to
Martin, he’s our friend. [LAUGHTER]. And we actually have a very
close partnership with WPP which has worked really well. The advertising industry and the
agencies are learning how to work with these new models. There’s a great need for
creativity, because as part of advertising is about stories,
advertising is about images, the narrative and the
tools are coming. Over the next few years, you’ll
see very sophisticated visual advertisements. Think of them as YouTube videos
in one form or another that are immersive, they
get you excited about buying the product. And maybe at the end, you’ll be
so compelled, you will buy the product. We can sell those products
and make a lot of money. CHARLIE ROSE: Here is the
question that everybody asks in technology today. Not anybody at Google, but if
you do what I do and if you do what people who have content do
and if you do what YouTube does, how do you monetize it? There’s a huge problem. Not a problem, challenge. As Rahm Emanuel says, we
see every crisis as an opportunity. There’s a challenge to find
ways to monetize it. You produce content, if you
make it free, you don’t generate a lot of revenue. So what’s the answer to
monetization, because it affects YouTube, one
of your companies? ERIC SCHMIDT: On user-generated
content, a lot of it is very hard
to monetize. Very hard to show an ad next to
some of this stuff and many advertisers would want to
be near that stuff. CHARLIE ROSE: Right, that’s
a problem isn’t it? That’s a problem. ERIC SCHMIDT: So there’s
a total market of monetizable things. Here’s a model for you. For things which are going to
be viewed by two billion people, you’re going to
use advertisements. And you’l use, in the case of
YouTube, you’ll use videos around the side, you’ll
use ads at the bottom. You’ll do 15 second pre-roll or
post-roll and all of those experiments are being
tried at YouTube. I would say YouTube’s monetization of that is halfway. We’re not where we need to be,
but we’re much farther along than we were last year. CHARLIE ROSE: OK. Take social networks like
Facebook and Myspace. They have the same problem. ERIC SCHMIDT: Absolutely. CHARLIE ROSE: Argument is made
that the people who are on Facebook are interested in what
their friends are doing, they’re not interested in ads
because they’re not searching for products or information. ERIC SCHMIDT: But that denies
the fundamental progress of innovation. There absolutely will be
solutions for that, that we just haven’t invented
them yet. We’re still waiting for the
20% timers to come up with these insights. CHARLIE ROSE: You’ve got some
Google boys and girls out there working on this
as we speak. ERIC SCHMIDT: You can’t sort of
tell them, it has to occur naturally through the
bottom up process. So we’re waiting, but we know
it will come because the amount of time being spent on
that is so significant that we know we can use that time for
some form of entertainment, advertising, some kind of
immersive experience. Another way to think
about content. I said if your audience is two
billion, you don’t use advertising. CHARLIE ROSE: Mine’s a little
less than that. ERIC SCHMIDT: In a smaller
audience, say some number, 20 million kind of an audience, two
million audience, you can imagine that you’ll have
micropayments, not advertising, where you’ll
pay $0.01, $0.03, $0.05, for a view. Those tools and techniques are
being developed now in the industry and I think are likely
to be successful. And then for highly, highly,
specialized, that is knowledge workers who are highly paid
and they have to have this very special report, they’ll pay
big bucks and they’ll use the traditional subscription
method. CHARLIE ROSE: Before we talk
about five years from now and then 25 years from now, let me
just raise a couple of points. One, Google Earth. How is it being used and
are people that we don’t like using it? [LAUGHTER] ERIC SCHMIDT: Well I’m sure
there are people we don’t like using it to the general
answer– CHARLIE ROSE: Because remember
there was a famous incident of Dick Cheney sorted wanted it
wiped off of because of the vice presidential residence. Isn’t that right? ERIC SCHMIDT: Mm hm. CHARLIE ROSE: Did you guys
at Google do something? ERIC SCHMIDT: Well in fact,
our supplier did it. But in any case, we have
pictures back of where the residence is. CHARLIE ROSE: You
couldn’t see it. What did you get, a little
blank space? ERIC SCHMIDT: It was a
little covered up. The problem I have with these
arguments is that everyone knows where the vice president’s
residence is. CHARLIE ROSE: And if you don’t
know, you can find out. ERIC SCHMIDT: It’s on the maps
when you buy them in Washington. Vice president’s residence,
it’s called the Naval Observatory. Look it up. Where is the CIA? There’s the address
in the phone book. CHARLIE ROSE: It’s in Langley. Yes. ERIC SCHMIDT: Langley,
it’s in the movies. There’s a nice picture
of driving into it. So the real question is, what
information is broadly available to evil people? And answer unfortunately, is,
that virtually all of the information, any information we
have is already available to the evil people as
best we can tell. And we’re obviously trying to
encourage that, but the fact of the matter is that physical
maps are available to evil people and so forth and so on. So we try very hard not to
show stuff that’s not generally available. CHARLIE ROSE: OK, but speaking
of stuff that’s generally available– ERIC SCHMIDT: Just on maps, I
do want to emphasize that we’ve seen an explosion in the
use of Google Maps and Google Earth for education. The earth is a special place. It is our home and it’s why
we’re all here and the ability to see what’s really going on
on the earth, both the good stuff and the bad stuff at the
level that you can, it’s phenomenal. Not only do we have Google
Earth, we can see changes from climate change is
the obvious one. People are finding things like
meteorite impact craters and things like that. Last year, we introduced
something called Google Sky which will show from the point
you are on Google Earth with the sky looks like. It’s a tremendous
teaching tool. A few weeks, ago we announced
Google Ocean, and you can actually start from any of the
coasts and go right under the water and see what the– CHARLIE ROSE: Topography is? ERIC SCHMIDT: It’s
unbelievable. You need Google Earth
version five beta. CHARLIE ROSE: Can you
see the fish? ERIC SCHMIDT: Yes, we
have fake fish. [LAUGHTER] We’ve drawn them in. And in fact, you can find
shipwrecks and so forth. And we got the information–
this is an example– where we got bathymetric information
from the US Navy. They were happy to give it to
help people understand the role of the oceans. CHARLIE ROSE: Is there a lot of
cooperation between Google and the media– I mean, not the media,
the military. ERIC SCHMIDT: There is. CHARLIE ROSE: How are they
using you or vice versa? ERIC SCHMIDT: Well they
give us stuff that’s publicly available. We’re careful not to do
anything beyond that. But I think that many, many,
people have had all of these databases of generally
interesting information that we can now make available
through things like Google Earth. CHARLIE ROSE: Just to back
for a moment, with respect to cell phone. I saw Bin Laden actually caught
up to the idea that they were tracing some stuff
because his cell phone was on and then they announced it and
the administration at that time got very upset because they
said by announcing it in a newspaper, you showed that
they were doing that. And so all of a sudden,
it went dark and you couldn’t trace it. In addition to that, a number
of the people, to read the stories of how they captured
some of these al-Qaeda operatives, it was because
of cell phones. Even though they were smart
enough and knew enough and had enough information, only to turn
them on for a brief few seconds, they were able
to trace them down. Now, I want to go to– ERIC SCHMIDT: I should say
that, remember that the technology is neutral. Technology can be used
for good or evil. CHARLIE ROSE: And
even atheistic. ERIC SCHMIDT: Yes, of course. And the important thing is that
this new generation of technology– CHARLIE ROSE: Theology
is what I mean. ERIC SCHMIDT: It does
not have a theology. So this new technology really
can be used for good or evil and in a situation where a
terrorist or so forth is some of this technology, there are
obvious things that the smartest people in the world
working on the good side could do to find them, follow
it and so forth. So would not give up on your
finding the cell phone sites. There are many other things that
we could do to find them. CHARLIE ROSE: Now, speak
to GPS in terms of what is going on. And what you guys at Google
are thinking about. Because there is this idea that
they you want us to know where everybody is
all the time. So you can, not you, but
you know what I mean. ERIC SCHMIDT: The next
generation, I’m not sure about my generation, but the the next
generation is infinitely more social online. CHARLIE ROSE: Right. And infinitely less private. ERIC SCHMIDT: Yes,
as evidenced by their Facebook pictures. CHARLIE ROSE: Right. ERIC SCHMIDT: And [LAUGHTER]– by the way, those pictures will
be around when they’re running for president. CHARLIE ROSE: Yes, indeed. And we haven’t quite settled
who owns them, either, have though Facebook– ERIC SCHMIDT: It won’t matter
who owns them, trust me. When they get out, it’s going
to be a problem when they’re running for office. CHARLIE ROSE: And not to
speak of your emails. ERIC SCHMIDT: That’s right. And the fact of the matter is
that we’ve given up something in terms of privacy in return
for these other things and I think that is societal of change
that we have to admit is occurring, at least among
younger generations. CHARLIE ROSE: Any problem
with this? Could it go too far? ERIC SCHMIDT: Of course it
could go too far, and the trick is that people should
have control over what information they publish. As long as the answer is that
I chose to make a mess of of myself with this picture,
then it’s fine. The issue is when somebody
else does it. CHARLIE ROSE: It stuns me
what people will do for 15 minutes of fame. ERIC SCHMIDT: Well, but that’s
their choice and they have to live with the consequences
of it. But the fact of the matter is
that it’s now possible, for example, we have a product
called Google Latitude which runs on any of your mobile
browsers using GPS which will essentially tell everyone
you wish where you are. You can decide the level of
accuracy and also broadly you publish it. So you can say only to three
people and you can tell them accurately, you can also say
only to these three people and you could tell them, oh
I’m in the state of New Jersey or whatever. CHARLIE ROSE: I get it. ERIC SCHMIDT: And that notion
of control is fundamental to the evolution of these
privacy-based solutions. CHARLIE ROSE: Tease me about
what’s on the edge. What’s exciting about where
we’re going in terms of what Google and other technology
companies will be able to do for us or enable us. ERIC SCHMIDT: Google is first
and foremost a search engine and we like to think of the
person as the search. CHARLIE ROSE: Right. ERIC SCHMIDT: So when somebody
types something in today, they’re really typing in the
context of their history, their background, what they
know, their belief systems and so forth. And if they give us permission,
we can use some of that to give them more
accurate information. So now let’s imagine, for
purposes of argument, a situation where you’re walking
down the street and it’s with your mobile device
and your GPS. So why can’t my phone generate
the searches that I should have been asking. It knows what I care about,
I’m a fan of history. When I walk down the streets
of New York, why doesn’t it tell me the history of every
building so that I don’t have to bother to type, I
can just see it. Imagine the situation where the
person, the GPS, the phone and this constant searching
creates a narrative stream. It’s highly personal and
highly entertaining. Entertain me. CHARLIE ROSE: Exactly, can you
imagine circumstances in which I would somehow be able to
connect to the idea that I was going to be talking to Eric
Schmidt and so they would provide me with lots of
interesting questions. ERIC SCHMIDT: Well, yes. [LAUGTER] In fact, that we can almost
do that today. CHARLIE ROSE: Like
where were you. ERIC SCHMIDT: And we
can do that almost now with your calendar. Because we know who you’re
meeting and if your calendars is inside of Google, it should
eventually be possible for us to generate the questions for
each of your meetings. CHARLIE ROSE: Should be
and will be, when? ERIC SCHMIDT: Should be. Engineers are working
on it now. CHARLIE ROSE: But so Gmail. Suppose I use Gmail. You guys can see all
of my Gmails. ERIC SCHMIDT: But we
don’t by practice. CHARLIE ROSE: Well, yeah, but
you know what the argument is about that. ERIC SCHMIDT: We have
rules Charlie. CHARLIE ROSE: Suppose
you didn’t like me. ERIC SCHMIDT: Even if we
don’t like you, we won’t violate our rules. [LAUGHTER] CHARLIE ROSE: So what, so
you’re saying trust us? Trust us? ERIC SCHMIDT: Yes. CHARLIE ROSE: That’s it. We’re not going to
sneak a look. ERIC SCHMIDT: We do
not sneak a look. CHARLIE ROSE: So when Barack
Obama was running for president and he had Gmail
account, I don’t know whether he did or not, nobody
was saying, hm. ERIC SCHMIDT: To our knowledge,
no one did it and if they had they would
have been fired. CHARLIE ROSE: Immediately. ERIC SCHMIDT: And it’s also
possible that they would have been guilty of federal laws,
had they broken into that account using a false
password. CHARLIE ROSE: Really. ERIC SCHMIDT: The laws are
very strict about this. CHARLIE ROSE: So if somebody
gets into account without using the password, they may
be guilty of a crime. ERIC SCHMIDT: They’re
likely to guilty. CHARLIE ROSE: Before we leave
the notion of the time today, a contemporary time,
the digital divide. Where are we and where
should we be and why aren’t we there now? ERIC SCHMIDT: The good news is
that we work in a technology where the prices
are improving. It’s a constant price
reduction business. I have no idea, by the way, how
these Harvard companies make any money at all. Prices are so low now. But the corollary benefit is
the explosion in digital devices where people who could
never have imagined having access to these things
10 or 20 years ago. The obvious example being in the
gaming industry where the game devices are as powerful as
a personal computers today. The real story is going to be
on the mobile phones to come back to that. Because everyone gets
a mobile phone. And even in the third world, and
that’s the worst example of visual divide, you can build
networks where people used SMS, where are these
short messages, the 160-character messages, to
actually do searches and queries and we do that
in those markets. And if you’re a farmer whose
depending on the price, the weather forecast, that query may
determine whether you go bankrupt or not with
your farm. CHARLIE ROSE: OK, but
where is that? Do they have access to that? ERIC SCHMIDT: It is absolutely
working today. CHARLIE ROSE: If they have a
mobile phone and more people buy mobile forms and so
therefore, more farmers know when it’s going to rain. ERIC SCHMIDT: There are roughly
a billion more mobile phones coming online in
the next three to three and a half years. That extra billion voices are
voices we have never heard in languages we don’t speak, we
have no idea what they’re going to tell us, but they’re
going to be heard. I think it’s great. CHARLIE ROSE: OK, but that
raises the interesting question about what
language we use. I mean, does it depend? I mean, is English
the standard? Is Chinese going to be
the standard in 2050. ERIC SCHMIDT: Well, English
appears to be the global language, certainly of commerce
and intellectual. On the internet, Chinese is
growing more quickly as language than English. Chinese and any Mandarin
specifically, over English. CHARLIE ROSE: Why is that? Just because there are
a lot of Chinese? ERIC SCHMIDT: Just because
of the number. There are many Chinese
with lots more to go. CHARLIE ROSE: And increasingly,
more middle class who has access
to technology. ERIC SCHMIDT: They’re on the
order of 250 million users in China of the internet, which
is more than the number of users we have United States
today and that’s an important milestone. They have many, many, hundreds
of millions to go. There about 500 million mobile
phone users in China with again, many more Chinese
people to come. CHARLIE ROSE: And the rate of
growth is extraordinary. ERIC SCHMIDT: Yes. CHARLIE ROSE: In this audience
of people who are involved in the process in education and
learning, is technology doing all it can to help us? Is technology on the
cutting edge? Is technology delivering
its promise? ERIC SCHMIDT: Let me give
you the simple case. CHARLIE ROSE: And we want. ERIC SCHMIDT: [APPLAUSE] Let me give you the simple
case and, I think, the challenging case. The simple case is that all
these new technologies allow you to organize your classroom
around community learning. So children can do this today,
build up a small web site, we have a product called Sites
that does this, there are others where you basically build
a knowledge domain and everybody can contribute. You have a document, everyone
can collectively edit it and so forth, and you figure out
who did all the work. A lot of learning today and
watching teachers teach is they try to do it in groups. We don’t really see it as
individuals anymore, and it starts literally
in first grade. So that’s likely the majority
of use today is really community based, using images,
searches and so forth. All of which, we’re happy
to do at Google. To me the real question is, how
does the ability to have all the world’s information in
front of you all the time change education? When I was 13– and I grew up in Virginia– I was required to memorize the
52 cities that were the capital cities of each county
in the state of Virginia, which I mastered after
a lot of work. Today, of course, there’s a
nice table in Google that tells me all that, and I don’t
know why I’d have to memorize all that. CHARLIE ROSE: I could give
you a test on this. ERIC SCHMIDT: So why did I have
to memorize all that? Instead, what they should have
done is they should have taught me how to
search for it. I have a friend who is a venture
capitalist, Bill Joy, who described how he does
venture capital is he uses Google to search for
all the new ideas. He reads the papers, so he
figures out what the search query is, he reads the paper and
he calls the people to say what’s new, what’s innovative. CHARLIE ROSE: Wait, this
is important to me. He looks at the papers, he
goes online and looks at newspapers or he reads them? ERIC SCHMIDT: No, he starts
off with a search. I’m interested in
hydrodynamics. And he learns by digging, by
repetitive searching, until he finds the papers that
are authoritative. He looks for who the authors
are and he calls the author and these are people no
one ever calls, so the return his call. [LAUGHTER] And that’s how he learns. So rather than having a
textbook, he starts with a search on an idea. The combination of Wikipedia,
which is a remarkable achievement for humanity, just
phenomenal, and search engines like Google, mean that you can
literally get it all if you’re willing to be motivated. So my idea about school would
be that you would sit there with however many students you
have and you’d say, students, I’m going to give you a
set of search terms to get started with. And we’re going to see which
of you learn the most. And what would happen, of
course, is about a third– the ones in the back row
that are asleep– are going to wait for the
other two thirds. And out of the other
two thirds, some of them will do it great. Some will do it poorly. And then you’d have
a conversation among all of them. It’s a complete inversion of
the textbook model and of course, you could supplement
it with a textbook for the people who are uncomfortable
or not creative in that regard. CHARLIE ROSE: What you
said is you could. Are these kinds of things being
translated to the people who are on the front
line of education? The teachers and the principals
and the schools. ERIC SCHMIDT: I’ve met the
educators who are doing this. I was giving you the
extreme example. The most important
accomplishment I’ve seen in education has been the
development of these community sites around topic areas. So some of the best teachers in
physics and chemistry and so forth get together and they
put together lessons ostensibly as an online lesson
plan, but it’s really to get a compendium of information, We
have a lot of evidence that committed people, professionals
like people here in the audience, who work
collaboratively across all the United States, produced a
enormously valuable product. And that product can serve
as the basis for the next revision of textbooks,
the next revision of certification. And I think it’s wonderful. CHARLIE ROSE: Let’s look
five years from now. All of the things we’ve been
talking about today are mostly here today. Where’s it all going? What’s exciting about
where we will be? ERIC SCHMIDT: Let’s
do a little math. Five years from now, Moore’s
Law, doubling every 18 months, means a factor of 10 in
everything you have today. CHARLIE ROSE: You need
to explain that a little bit more. Gordon Moore created this
law which said– ERIC SCHMIDT: There’s a law
called Moore’s law, which is true today. CHARLIE ROSE: Which has
been true since he originated the idea. We thought a new calculation
might step forward, but it did not. ERIC SCHMIDT: Not today. It has to do with the physics
of transistors and semiconductors and basically,
Moore’s Law says that you can double the density or the number
of things that are on a computer chip every 18 months. So a rough rule means that the
computer either gets twice as fast or half the price over
an 18 month period. Usually the vendors prefer they
get twice as fast and not fall half the price because
of the revenue implications of that. But that’s why these phones
that you have had more computer power than the entire
NASA space program used in launching us to the moon. All of the computers
that they had. It’s a phenomenal, phenomenal,
achievement. It’s not slowing down. All of the evidence about
Moore’s law says that will go on for another 10 to 15 years. Eventually, we run into problems
with photolithography and literally the
speed of light. But we’re not quite there yet. So for the next 10 or 15 years,
you’ll see this kind of compound benefit. I like to think of
it this way. If you figure that out, that
means that in five years it will be 10 times cheaper
or faster. In 10 years, by the way, that’s
100 times cheaper or faster and in 15 years,
it’s a thousand times cheaper or faster. So unless something changes,
in 15 years, I have a grandson, he’ll be
18 in 15 years. He will have all of the world’s
information, every video, every movie and so forth
on a single hard drive. If he started watching
it, he cannot finish watching it in 85 years. He’ll always be frustrated. [LAUGTER] CHARLIE ROSE: It’s amazing. What else is happening
in five years? This is has to do with that
field that you’re really in, which is all the world’s
information. ERIC SCHMIDT: There are many
things that we can do with the corpus of information that’s
being gathered. We were talking about latitude
and privacy and so forth, but there are many positive
things that we can do. The most interesting one that
we’ve recently done is called flu trends. CHARLIE ROSE: Flu trends
in terms of worldwide flu, influenza. ERIC SCHMIDT: There’s a lot of
evidence and concern about a pandemic that might occur,
similar to the 1918 bird flu epidemic that killed– CHARLIE ROSE: 50 million– ERIC SCHMIDT: A proportionately
huge number if it were today. And because people, when they
have a problem, search for something, we can detect
uncommon searches as a blip. And we can note that. In our case, we built a system
which took anonymized searches, so you couldn’t figure
out exactly who it was, and that’s important. And we could get six months
ahead of the other reporting mechanisms, and we could
identify the outbreak. Many people believe that this
device can save 10,000, 20,000, 30,000 lives every year
just because the health care providers can get earlier
and contain the outbreak. It’s an example of collective
intelligence, of which there are many, many more. CHARLIE ROSE: Well, just
think about this. Mapping the human genome. They sort of got mostly there by
I think it was right around 2000, 2001, it may
have been 19. Clinton had it at the White
House and he left in 2000, so it may have been in 1999. Right around there. And they’re just beginning
to have it pay off. Because they’ve been mapping it,
but that was done because technology enabled them to
compress the amount of time to do it and now they’re doing
remarkable stuff in terms of technology. And companies can personalize
it, so rather than paying, it’s been compressed so you can
pay $1,000 soon and know everything you may want to know
and may not want to know. But if you want to know it, it
will inform you about those diseases that you have a genetic
predisposition to and maybe there are things that
you can do even though you have a predisposition that will
either make your life longer or not. Other people say, I worry about
that, because in the hands of the insurance
companies, that might not be so fine. ERIC SCHMIDT: But everyone is
worried about everything. Why don’t we get optimistic
for change? CHARLIE ROSE: Right. [APPLAUSE] ERIC SCHMIDT: Let’s try to
figure out a way to use this to solve some problem. Let me give you an example. The Wikipedia model has
been so successful. Why don’t we have all the
smartest doctors organize a corpus, a public corpus of
medical information that combines everything everybody
knows about medical practice in one place? A place where you can–
again this would have to be a public database– where you’d keep pouring
experiential data and then you could build computer systems. CHARLIE ROSE: So you have
have all your cases, everything you ever need. ERIC SCHMIDT: Again,
anonymized so it’s appropriately legal
and all of that. And get it in one place
so that people can begin to mine the data. They can actually begin to
figure out what the disease trends are. What are the real
health trends? And this is not a knock on
existing providers that do it, they just don’t have
the scale. We are strong when we have
thousands of people working in parallel to solve a really
important problem. I would tell you, by the way,
that if you look at the problems that the society has
hit over the last thousand years, start with the plague,
all of the things that nearly destroyed society, we overcame
them through technology and innovation. People figured out new ways,
whether it was medicine, governance, to overcome them. So let’s be positive about it. We can work those issues. There’s always a way
to handle the objections if it’s important. CHARLIE ROSE: OK. Do we need anything in terms
of presidential initiative, presidential leadership, a czar
or anything in order that we get on with it? ERIC SCHMIDT: Well, we needed
the stimulus package. Because the stimulus package
had, among other things, $20 dollars of science funding,
science and education funding to essentially to move
the ball forward. One of the things about
economics is everyone assumes that economics are static. Real wealth is created by
businesses, not by financial engineering and by businesses
that build new products that solve new problems. In American jobs, and this is
primarily in an American stimulus package, you need to
be high paying for a reason. We’re losing out to low cost
manufacturing economies. But we have the best scientists,
the best innovators, the best educational
system and it should pay off. And what it pays off
is innovation, new products that pay well. [APPLAUSE] CHARLIE ROSE: How is all
this changing us? I moderated a seminar or
panel at the World Science Summit last year. The topic was, what it
means to be human. Some say that the human genome
has made us understand what it means to be human. And it’s also made us understand
that in terms of so many things that people might
have cited as differences, that our genetic code was
essentially the same. But we’re always in quest
of what it is that means to be human. How is all of this helping
us understand that? ERIC SCHMIDT: It certainly made
me understand why life is so precious. Computers and the things that
we do do not replicate the feelings, the emotions, the
excitement, the images, the smell of bread on a Paris
morning sort of thing. All of those things
are uniquely human and uniquely special. The technology has made
us closer together. It has also made us
more stressed. If you look at the history of
technology over a couple hundred years, it’s all about
time compression and making the globe smaller. It’s had positive effects, all
the ones that we know. We’re much less likely to have
the kind of terrible misunderstandings that led to
World War I, for example. Think about it in the Cuban
Missile Crisis. There was literally a red
phone that they actually installed over miscommunication
over a nuclear weapon and there was
one submarine in the Cuban missile crisis that they
couldn’t find and they were worried was about to launch
a nuclear weapon. Think about the damage
that that would have done to humanity. Today that’s not going to happen
because of, among other things, cell phones. So we benefit from this
interconnectedness. We have to learn as a society
what it means to be interconnected all the time. It means, for example, that not
everything is as important as everything else. Since I have access to every
crisis in the world, because it’s always blaring at me on
cable television, that doesn’t mean I have to worry about every
one of them This is also known as knowing where
the off button is. CHARLIE ROSE: You know where
the off button is? ERIC SCHMIDT: You have to. [APPLAUSE] CHARLIE ROSE: Do you have any
advice for us in parenting? ERIC SCHMIDT: Children are
different from adults in a lot of ways, and the most important
thing I worry about today about children– and we all know how much more
quickly they grow up– is that as young minds– CHARLIE ROSE: And how quickly
they adjust to technology. ERIC SCHMIDT: Adjust
to technology. I worry that the level of
interrupt, the sort of overwhelming repetitive
information, and especially stressful information, is, in
fact, affecting cognition. It is, in fact, affecting
deeper thinking. I still believe that sitting
down and reading a book is the best way to really
learn something. [APPLAUSE] I worry that we’re losing that,
and I think that with an educator audience, it’s
important that we start with reading. If you look at all of the IQ
testing, all of the tracking testing, its early reading with
young parents literally with small children that really
make the difference. CHARLIE ROSE: OK, but I
would add to that also the ability to write. Has technology made us read less
but write more because of emails and all that
kind of stuff? ERIC SCHMIDT: Remember, there’s quality versus quantity. [LAUGHTER] The good news is that all the
evidence is that the symbolic reasoning that comes from
playing computer games, the kind of navigational queries,
the example I used where go search for something, really
does develop the cognitive capability. Literally the ability to think
in more abstract terms, and that’s going to be more
important as the world gets more complicated. Think about the challenges
that someone being born today will face. Literally, their birthday
is this calendar year. Think about the kind of issues
they’ll face in a world which is a thousand times faster,
a thousand times more interconnected when they’re
15, 20 years from now. CHARLIE ROSE: That that makes
me leap to this thing. I’m fascinated by what the
world look like in 2025. It’s one quarter of this century
that we’re in now. If you go to the CIA website,
the CIA, they do two things. One, they spy on people and they
collect data, sometimes in the same time. But that’s what they do. That’s the business
they’re in. And sometimes they
get it right, sometimes they get it wrong. But they on their web site, you
can get the whole series and talk about it in television
interviews with people like me in terms of
looking forward, and they say a whole lot of interesting
things. They they say, for example, it
is more likely in the next 25 years, in the next 16 years,
that we’ll have some kind of nuclear exchange. It is more likely that there
will be a water shortage, a water scarcity, that will cause
territorial battles. It is more likely that there
will be a food scarcity. These are all things that we’re
not even talking about in the budget. ERIC SCHMIDT: That’s because
the budget was organized around the next two years,
not is the next 20 years. But if you look at the threats
to humanity, the two significant threats– CHARLIE ROSE: I didn’t even
mention nuclear proliferation. ERIC SCHMIDT: What are the
things that could kill a million people, 10 million
people, 100 million people, well the nuclear issues, some
form of nuclear conflict, a nuclear accident is one. And the other one is
climate change. And climate change, of course,
is many things including rising sea levels. The shift in where rain falls
and the associated water sheds, the loss of the Himalayan
glacier and so forth, all affect a number of
people that is staggering. As a person involved in
information, what can we do to help? We can get this message out. We can get the human society
to understand how serious the threat. When you fly over those
glaciers, remember someone drinks that water. If they don’t get it, they will
riot or they will die or there will be a war. And similarly, for their
predecessors who worked so hard for nuclear
proliferation. And I would think twice when
I hear somebody in this testosterone rage saying,
I’m going to do this, I’m going to do that. Let’s have some nuance here. It’s possible to really destroy
the great things that we’ve built here on earth
relatively quickly in these two areas. That’s the bad news, the good
news is there are so many other areas where things
will be so much better. In medicine, the deployments
that they’ve made of artificial limbs and eventually,
naturally grown through stem cells and others,
replacement parts will allow a much better life or at least a
certain a longer life compared to what we have today. In terms of knowledge, as I said
before, we’ll have every piece of information in front of
you and by the way, it will be in every language because in
that time period we’ll have automatic translation. It’ll be possible for you to
text to your friend and not be able to speak to them in person
because we’ll be able to automatically translate the
text from your language to their language. We’ll be able to take all of
your shows and automatically translate them. Plus, they’ll all be searchable,
so we can do it in historical time as well. Google recently brought out both
a history search and also on Google Earth, a view of
history so you can go back to your favorite places
and watch the pictures of how they evolved. It’s amazing what we can
do with all of this new information. CHARLIE ROSE: So here’s
the question. Many people write books now in
which they talk about with the economic crisis, the changing
world order, a flat world, that America will not have
the same place it did in the 20th century. A, you got a degree at
Princeton, went out to Berkeley and got a PhD
in computer sciences. I think. It’s mathematics or something. That that we are not necessarily
going to lead the revolution that will deliver
these things, is that of concern to you or do you
accept the premise? ERIC SCHMIDT: If you’re a person
who believes it America is the only country and America
is always right, I have news for you, it’s not
going to be true in the future because the Chinese and the
Indians and the sum of the Europeans will have their own
state of what’s right and what they think the future is. CHARLIE ROSE: We’re looking
to a shared world. ERIC SCHMIDT: We’re moving into
a world where you have to actually talk to them and in
the case of [APPLAUSE] a sole superpower model, it’s
easy to say American values, we’re right, you’re wrong
and take over other people’s culture. That’s not going
to be possible. Where America will be strongest,
and where I think we should be, we will be, and
it matters the most, will be in innovation. CHARLIE ROSE: How do
you know that? ERIC SCHMIDT: I know that
because I talk to the people who are running our
universities. I talk to the students. We hire the best students. They are going to go off and do
these amazing things that you and I are talking about. CHARLIE ROSE: Why do you assume
that the best students are going to be American or
why do you assume that the Chinese or the Indians or
Russians, or wherever they come from, are necessarily going
to want to come here? ERIC SCHMIDT: Because they
choose to come here right now. CHARLIE ROSE: Ah, just
to accept it– ERIC SCHMIDT: They’re voting
with their feet. CHARLIE ROSE: Ah, but,
no, no, no, no, wait. Because of immigration policies
and other things, they’re all not A, being
allowed to stay here. ERIC SCHMIDT: Well, that’s
a brilliant strategy. Take the best people, hire them
in American universities and kick them out
of our country. CHARLIE ROSE: It happens. ERIC SCHMIDT: It’s shocking. CHARLIE ROSE: It happens. ERIC SCHMIDT: I know. We’re fighting against it. CHARLIE ROSE: But
it’s an issue in Congress now as a priority. But my point is that we can’t
assume, or can we, that we have some luck on this part? ERIC SCHMIDT: It turns out,
it’s harder to think to replicate the American
educational system. CHARLIE ROSE: Ah, that’s
where I’m going. ERIC SCHMIDT: The model that
we have about faculty, graduate students, innovation,
all the things we talked about, many countries
are trying. It takes 50 years to
replicate that, and maybe a different culture. So we remain, we America, remain
by far the place of choice for education,
particularly higher education. CHARLIE ROSE: So you’re
optimistic about it. ERIC SCHMIDT: Absolutely. [APPLAUSE] And we should give some credit,
not just to the educators and the students, but
also the government, who has a historic role. Maybe a third of the funding
for American universities comes from one form or another
of federal and state grants. We also have the history of
state colleges, state universities and so forth
and so on, which is very, very powerful. CHARLIE ROSE: As I said earlier
in introducing you, you’re on an economic advisory,
whatever it is down there, council, bunch of
businessmen and other people and women in finance or advising
the president, right? What is it you do? What’s your advice? ERIC SCHMIDT: This president is,
and I’m a public supporter of President Obama, as
you know, is very, very good at listening. He organizes groups, he sort of
gets everybody to talk, he synthesizes very,
very, quickly. So I and others have campaigned
hard for quick action to deal with the economic
crisis with a bias in favor of renewable energy,
technology innovation, investing in the infrastructure
of America, which is largely dependent
on focus and of course on education. CHARLIE ROSE: Healthcare, too. ERIC SCHMIDT: Healthcare,
of course. I’m pleased to say that the
stimulus package had about two thirds of the money in the
package went for those kinds of areas, along with the states
and local governments which were in terrible
situations and one third to tax cuts, which was about
the right balance. So we’re now running
that experiment. That’s in place, and we need
confidence quickly. I would tell you that the
business situation in America right now is really
quite dire. You see increasing bad news,
even today, bad news, there’s no end in sight. CHARLIE ROSE: Employment
is up. ERIC SCHMIDT: Unemployment’s
up. We’re not at the bottom here
and the quicker we can get through this, the quicker we
can get to the other side. I do believe that the recovery,
when it occurs, will be led by the kind of businesses
that we’re highlighting now. The ones that solve
a new problem. I, for example, believe that
green energy, sort of rebuilding the energy
infrastructure of America is a great project. It’s a great project for this
President, who can then use that to reduce our dependence
upon foreign oil, increase American jobs, right? [APPLAUSE] And build a whole set of
export-oriented industries and oh, by the way, help materially
solve the climate change issue which
is very serious. CHARLIE ROSE: So, we’ll
come through this? ERIC SCHMIDT: Oh, absolutely. One of the things is if you have
a choice between being in America and being in the other
countries in a global slowdown, you’d much
rather be here. Although it’s more painful,
you’ll get out faster. [APPLAUSE] CHARLIE ROSE: I have
a question. It is this notion, I was just
thinking about this. Are people in technology
are, what is it? ERIC SCHMIDT: Technologists,
as a group tend to be more analytical, more data driven,
more personally liberal, more willing to tolerate the
differences among people, more global in their focus and I
think that’s across all political parties. People in technology believe
that you can create whole new businesses. In my dealings with other
businesses, they often seem to be locked in a paradigm that
was given to them by their grandfather. This is the economic structure,
this is the industrial structure, this is
how it’s always been done. Technologists as a group believe
that you can literally change the world from
technology. CHARLIE ROSE: It’s a pleasure to
have you here in New York. Thank you very much. ERIC SCHMIDT: Thank you
very much Charlie. [APPLAUSE] CHARLIE ROSE: Eric Schmidt,
the CEO of Google. [APPLAUSE] ERIC SCHMIDT: Thank you. CHARLIE ROSE: For those of you
at home, thank you for joining us this evening. This hour, our conversation
with Eric Schmidt. Thank you very much
and good night.

26 comments found

  1. gotta make sure you're working on something hot when these guys start spending some of that cash they're sitting on

  2. Underwhelmed with the host – self-important and clueless, keeps butting in … it's not about you and all the wonderful quotes you can remember – it's about the guest!

  3. holy mother og god an hour of talking, on youtube, i can only make a vid no longer than 10 min, geuss google can do that

  4. gaaaaaaaawd!!!!the only reason ive clicked on this video is because i couldent belive my eyes!!!!1hour and 6 mins????JESUS!

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