Tj Host

Wedding Ideas & Inspiration
Use behavioral design to increase app engagement (Apps track – Playtime EMEA 2017)

Use behavioral design to increase app engagement (Apps track – Playtime EMEA 2017)

afternoon, Berlin. Let’s get stuck into things. A bat and ball cost $1.10. The bat costs $1
more than the ball. How much does the ball cost? Have a little think. Ready? Who got this answer? Hands up, please. Great. You got one of two
possible answers. What you, though, got was
the cognitive miser answer, the one that used a
shortcut in the brain. This actually isn’t
the real answer. The real answer is $0.05. And if you look at the
graphic on that side, it really does add up to $0.05. So that’s one example of us
thinking that we’re rational but actually acting
irrationally. The reason behind
the cognitive miser is that your brain is actually
trying to save mental energy. The brain is an amazing
thing, and we actually make, on average, 35,000
decisions in a day. But that mental energy
is a finite resource, and we suffer, over
the day, something called decision fatigue. So by the end of
it, it’s almost as if we’re drunk when
we’re making decisions. But that’s just the tip
of the iceberg, really. Why are we all here today,
and why am I speaking up here? Well, biases are really,
really important to us because we’re all here to
create apps and experiences that really offer long-term
relationships with the customers. We’re all aiming for high
engagement and a high perceived value from customers
for our products. But we can use biases in a
positive way, and a guiding light, and a
simplification process to guide them through the
journey of our app in a really nice and simple way. Two scenarios. Which would you prefer? The number involved above is
number of monthly active users in your app. I think we’d all agree
that we’d rather 3 million rather than 800,000. But let’s add one
data point to that– engagement. Scenario 1 now has
low engagement, but scenario 2 has got high. And by engagement,
I’m defining that as the percentage of people
completing your core action. A core action,
for example, would be posting a tweet on
Twitter, pinning an item on a board on Pinterest. So actually, which of
the two would you rather? I’d highly and strongly
suggest that we actually focus on the 800,000
and the high engagement. The 3 million is really
just a vanity metric. Let’s go six months
into the future. And now we’ve seen how
focusing on high engagement– that’s leading to
higher retention. You’ve been able to build
up the monthly active users to 5 million. And so that’s with using
these little nudges, these little biases,
these guiding lights to help your customers along
the journeys within the apps that you’ve built. Having been in this
business for a long time, there’s a few questions we
ask ourselves when we’re designing and building apps– simple questions, really. Is it clear what the app does? In that first five or
10-second experience for the customer,
really, how are you getting the value across? Are you providing that hook? In terms of value as well,
generally, to create value, you either save people
time, save people money, or enhance an
experience, or it’s a combination of the three. So think about how
you’re actually creating value for the customer. And also, going back
to that core action, try and design that whole
experience of your app around that specific,
simple core action and use those biases to
help them along the way to complete that core action. Also, along that
journey, how can you provide a sense of progress
to make them feel like they’re progressing to the end goal? We live in a very noisy world. We’ve got push notifications,
social messages, adverts, emails, phone calls all from
all sorts of different devices. We live in an age
of distraction. With that in mind,
it’s never been more important to
consider a few things– specifically, context
and past behavior when you’re thinking
about sending triggers out to your customers. Even better, there
are now SDKs available that allow you to look at
the past behavior, the habits and the lifestyle of your
users, and predict when is best to send out those push
notifications as used by [INAUDIBLE]
using the newer SDK. It’s amazing the kinds of
tools that we’ve got access to. Also worth considering
are other tools, like the Google
Awareness API, which can provide a sense of
context to your app in terms of what state the user is in. Are they driving? Are they walking? Do they have their
headphones plugged in? These little nuances to how
and when you’re pushing out triggers really have a
long-term positive effect on your retention
and engagement. The power of defaults– this is often overlooked,
but hugely, hugely useful to simplifying the
customer’s experience. Here we’ve got a top-up wheel
for a mobile coffee loyalty app. There are seven segments. Now, the numbers in
green, which one of those do you think we should
place in the default highlighted segment
in the wheel? And you– again,
give me a shout. 10? 30? OK. We’ve got some
smart people here. So 30 is correct. We chose 30 as the
default here because it was in the middle of the range. And the end result of that was
that the average top-up value was roughly around
20 pounds here, where originally, the
business thought it was going to be around 10 pounds. Now, with all these biases
and guiding lights and nudges, it’s great to
integrate into an app. But it really does have a
positive long-term effect. And this was the case with this
specific app that 50% of orders were coming from the app
for a certain source. And that compares to the market
leader in the coffee space having an average of 21% of
orders coming from the app. So these little
nudges really help. I think a huge number of us have
heard of the classic jam jar experiment whereby 24 jams
compared to six jams– the 3% of the people
who are shown 24 jams buy a jam compared to 40% of
people who buy one of the six. So that’s called the
paradox of choice. And this applied to
many who design here. I start off with
showing 50 options. So you’ve got every
option under the sun on the starting screen– obviously, far too many. You’re introducing cognitive
load into the experience. You’re making the
user work too hard. So let’s just apply some
common sense to that list, and we end up with
the second screen– 10 options. This is still a
[INAUDIBLE] list, but we can do so much
more for the customer. The ideal could
be just one user– one option– the smart,
the perfect option, the perfect option that takes
into account the context. That’s true, but it’s also worth
considering the last screen on the far-hand side of
providing three options. Why would you want to
write three options? To give a sense of
choice to your customer, to allow them to control their
journey through your app. All these behavioral
biases are really stemming from the last
60 years of research in behavioral science. But new concepts and
theories are coming out on a weekly basis. There’s a problem, though,
in that they’re really largely very dry, very academic,
maths-ridden sometimes, actually hard to get hold
of, and fundamentally, also, not very practical in
their original form. So we discovered this particular
problem two or three years ago and decided to create a little
micro-site called which basically is
a collection of all these lovely behavioral
biases pulled together into one location,
but redesigned and rewritten so that it’s in
a format that’s digestible, understandable, and
also practical to us who are the designers
and developers of today’s products and the future. So, and I might have
something to give out later on. Will all this
speak about biases, how best do you integrate
this thinking into the way that you’re designing
and building your apps? One of the methods
that we’ve got is– we call it the cog
load focus method. We have biases, and on
a whole stack of cards, we put it all out in the table. And collectively,
within the team, we look at what’s
most applicable to that particular
scenario, to that brand. And we make sure that everyone
understands the biases. Then you go off in your
individual little corners of the room and brainstorm ideas
around how to best integrate that bias into the
experience for the benefit of the customer. Also, it’s worth keeping
in mind the values of the client or the product,
the strategy that you’ve got, and also think about
the emotion that you’re looking to evoke by someone
using your tool or app. Then come back together, present
your best idea to the team, but think about
the actual problem that you’re looking to tackle. Present the idea, how it
aligns with the brand. Present also the
assumptions and risks you think are involved
in that and how are you going make
that minimal test, and who’s going to
be involved in that. The Memrise app, one of my most
favorite apps in the world. And I just wanted
to take a moment to focus you in
on to the very top of the screen, the green area. This is the first time this
screen has been shown to me, the user, the first-time user. But there’s two ticks here. This is what’s called the
endowed progress effect. And it’s a feeling that you’ve
already made a great start, so you’re more likely to
progress to that end goal, completing that line,
developing a positive behavior. And it all stems from research
originally done in the US for a car wash who trialed
two different loyalty cards. The first loyalty
card had eight stamps. The second loyalty
card had 10 stamps, but two were pre-filled. Which was the loyalty card
that performed the best? It was the one that had
the two pre-filled stamps. That was the card that was
completed the most often, that was complete
the quickest, and had the most loyal customers. Another lovely graphic here– the Harvard Business
Review Pyramid. Now, two things to
take from this slide. Try and involve as many of
these points in this pyramid as possible in your app. And what you will then
create is customer loyalty and high engagement. One other thing from this
pyramid is emotion again. It’s really important to
just ask this simple question when you’re designing
and building your app. What emotion am I
looking to evoke? It might simply be a smile. It might be some
stage past emotion, like salivation, which
is an amusing one. But it’s a very simple
question, and it acts as a really lovely,
simple guiding light to making sure that the
value you’re creating is high enough and
beneficial to the customer. Now, this is an app that I
hope you’ve all got installed already on your devices– Playbook for Developers,
which is a goldmine of nuggets for anyone building businesses
on top of Google Platforms. And I just wanted to showcase
two particular biases that are integrated into the app. You’ve got the sunk
cost effect, which is as you spend more time
investing within a tool or product, you’re far
less likely to leave. And so over the days or months
that you’re using the Playbook app, you’re personalizing
it, so then you’re getting a more
personalized feed, and again, less likely to leave. Then there’s the humor effect. It’s not really
connected to a feature, but it’s used to really create
a more lasting memory, which helps with retention. So we always want to get
darting androids into our apps. As I also mentioned before,
it’s not always about features. Think about also the low
moments in an app’s experience– when the network
fails, when there’s an internal error within
the app, when you’re in that first default state
where you don’t have any saved items. How can you use these design
nudges in a positive way to turn what actually might
feel initially quite negative, soften that, and maybe
you can even turn that into a positive experience,
and maybe make someone smile by showing a cute robot? The last case study I
wanted to highlight today is the M. Gemi app, which
is an app that sells shoes. And the really interesting bias
that they’ve integrated here is that of limited availability. So they have this
notion of editions that they release
every single week. But within those
editions, there’s a certain number of shoes– so
limited availability, actually, on the shoes. And then there’s
a limited window of 12 weeks for each shoe. So the result of all
that– they ended up having the highest converting
sales channel on mobile. That was their
highest-converting sales channel, and it was four to five
times the industry standards of conversions of push. So these things really do
work and are very, very useful for both customer and client. All this said– like I’ve said
before, with biases come power. They can be used
for negative effect, but it’s not the
time to use that. Really, for creating long-term
engagement, retention, the customer has to be right
at the heart of it all. And you can use the pulse
devices in so many ways to create that positive
emotion for the customer. So always end on a
peak end rule bias, which creates a
longer-lasting memory. Find me at the break. I’ve got a limited number of
special things to give out. So limited availability
bias there. Also, human bias creates
a longer-lasting memory. Merci, danke, thank you.

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